Effect of Fluoride and Bleaching Agents on the Degradation of Titanium: Literature Review
The use of mouthwashes and dental gels containing fluorides has increased in recent years as well as the dental bleaching agents. However, such agents can be in contact with surfaces of dental restorative, prosthetic and implant systems at high concentration in the oral cavity. That can adversely affect the corrosion resistance of titanium and its alloys. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current data regarding the influence of fluoride and bleaching agents on the degradation of titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy surfaces. Books, chapters and full-text articles were identified on Medline and hand searches applying the following search items: “titanium and fluorides”; “titanium and hydrogen peroxide”; “titanium and ion release”; and “titanium and degradation”. Thirty eight studies from an initial yield of 180 studies were selected. Results indicated that therapeutic substances used in dental practice such as fluoride, hydrogen and carbamide peroxides are related to corrosion and wear processes of titanium-based structures. Consequently, corrosive processes occurring on titanium lead to the release of ions and wear particles to surrounding peri-implant tissues and organs. However, the relation between ion release and inflammatory reactions into human tissues is not clear yet.